Gresham’s law, explained
Gresham’s law has historically influenced the circulation of currency and continues to impact economic behavior by addressing how individuals prioritize different forms of money.
Gresham’s law is a principle in economics that states that when two different forms of money are in circulation, individuals typically spend or trade the money they believe to be more valuable while hoarding or using the money they believe to be less valuable.
A common way to summarize this is “bad money drives out good.” Here, “good money” is defined as a currency that has greater intrinsic worth and is held onto, whereas “bad money” is defined as a currency that has a lower intrinsic value and people are eager to get rid of.
Although he didn’t originate the concept, Gresham’s law is named after Sir Thomas Gresham due to his role in popularizing the idea of how bad money drives out good money in monetary systems. He was a 16th-century English financier and adviser to Queen Elizabeth I.
Gresham’s law has historically been seen in a number of fiat currency systems, where debased or counterfeit coins would drive out of circulation the more valuable, legal coins because individuals would rather hold onto the higher-value currency and spend the lower-value currency. This idea is still relevant today when debating the use of cryptocurrencies and their differing levels of stability and utility.
How Gresham’s law applies to cryptocurrencies
When it comes to using cryptocurrencies, Gresham’s law holds that more volatile digital currencies are utilized for speculative investments and stable and well-established digital currencies are chosen for everyday transactions, reflecting the principle of “bad money” and “good money.”
When it comes to choosing which cryptocurrency to use for transactions, individuals often opt for the one they consider less valuable due to its stability and store of value. Gresham’s law implies that individuals tend to utilize cryptocurrencies that are less volatile and well-established for everyday transactions, saving the more speculative and volatile ones for investments or assets. The principle remains relevant in cryptocurrency adoption and usage patterns.
Gresham’s law and cryptocurrency’s function as a store of value are closely related. Some digital currencies, like Bitcoin (BTC), are regarded as relatively stable and valuable because of their scarcity and widespread use as digital assets akin to gold.
Similar to how individuals have held precious metals, users are more likely to hoard these cryptocurrencies as a hedge against inflation or financial upheaval. Conversely, more volatile cryptocurrencies are frequently employed in speculative trading, reflecting Gresham’s law’s concept of good money and bad money.
Within the cryptocurrency world, stablecoins — cryptocurrencies tied to conventional assets like fiat money or commodities — have a significant effect on Gresham’s law. Because of their constant value, these reliable digital assets are favored for everyday transactions and serve as the contemporary equivalent of good money.
Furthermore, the increasing acceptance and assimilation of cryptocurrencies into financial institutions is influencing people’s usage and prioritization of different digital assets, which is consistent with the ideas presented by Gresham’s law.
How does Gresham’s law affect the competition between cryptocurrencies and traditional currencies?
Gresham’s law highlights the significance of perceived money quality, hoarding motivations, volatility concerns, and legal and regulatory considerations, all of which can impact the competition between cryptocurrencies and fiat money.
Gresham’s law clarifies the dynamics at play in the ongoing rivalry between cryptocurrencies and fiat money. It draws attention to the propensity of people to exchange or hoard less desired types of currency while favoring and using what they consider to be superior money. People tend to hoard cryptocurrencies while using traditional money for daily transactions because they perceive cryptocurrencies as investment assets with the potential for value appreciation.
To understand, consider an individual who possesses both United States dollars and Bitcoin. The person would probably choose to use their U.S. dollars for everyday purchases, knowing that the value of the U.S. dollar tends to erode over time due to inflation. On the other hand, they might decide not to spend their Bitcoin since they would miss out on the possibility of future growth in its value.
Moreover, Gresham’s law indicates that people would steer clear of cryptocurrencies out of fear of fluctuating value and instead favor the steadiness of fiat money for everyday transactions. Because of this volatility risk, cryptocurrencies might only be primarily utilized in certain high-value transactions or as a store of value.
Businesses generally accept conventional currencies for transactions since they are recognized as legal tender within their respective countries. On the other hand, the legal environment surrounding cryptocurrency is uncertain and unclear.
As a result, people may choose to use traditional currency when regulations come into play. China’s cryptocurrency ban serves as a prime example of how regulations can influence currency choice. Gresham’s law applies, as the ban compels people to use traditional currency, the yuan, due to legal requirements and penalties associated with cryptocurrencies.
Limitations of Gresham’s law
Gresham’s law, while a valuable concept in currency dynamics, faces limitations, including the challenges posed by cryptocurrencies’ volatility and the evolving global financial landscape.
Gresham’s law, a valuable concept in currency dynamics, does have limitations that extend to the realm of cryptocurrencies. Its presumption of stable exchange rates is one of its main limitations.
In reality, currency rates are subject to fluctuations, and applying the law becomes more complicated in a global economy where digital currencies frequently have floating values. Furthermore, contrary to Gresham’s predictions, government interventions like currency restrictions and pegs might artificially keep bad money in circulation.
Psychological factors also play a significant role. Gresham’s expectations might not match people’s (in particular, older generations) connection to traditional currencies because of cultural influences, familiarity and trust. Furthermore, the extreme volatility of cryptocurrency presents a unique issue.
Most people are reluctant to spend them since they run the risk of experiencing abrupt value fluctuations, but some store them in hopes of appreciation. This calls into question the application of the law by muddying the line between good and bad money.
Finally, the evolving landscape of payment systems and fintech innovations further complicates the traditional application of Gresham’s law, calling for a more sophisticated understanding of modern currency dynamics.